Putzmeister Provides Precise Solutions to Clients in India

Putzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt Ltd, India, is a 100% subsidiary of Putzmeister GmbH, world’s number one manufacturer of high capacity concrete machines with its headquarters located in Aichtal, Germany.

Putzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt Ltd, India, manufactures an entire range of high-tech innovative concrete equipment, adapted to Indian specifications and needs at its factory and Head Office based in Verna, Goa. Its sales and service network is spread across India, continuously expanding further to cater to the growing infrastructure demands of the nation. As the pioneer of research & development in concrete pumping technology, Putzmeister is dedicated to offer the best and latest innovations in India.

Putzmeister’s machines are involved in the construction of Metro Rail projects, expansion and modernization of International airports at Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and Bangalore; building of diverse power plants, hydraulic projects, Liquefied Natural Gas tanks, refineries, ports, roads, bridges, high-rises and many such challenging projects.

Continuous Overnight Concrete Pour At NCC Power Project with Putzmeister BSF 36.09H-ECI
Beginning of this year, Putzmeister completed a challenging pour at NCC power plant project at Krishnapatnam in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. Putzmeister boom pump BSF 36.04H-ECI withstood the continuous concreting of the foundation, which was carried out overnight completing this feat early morning the next day.


Reliance Industries refinery expansion project – Jamnagar district, Gujrat

Boom Pumps in Action at Reliance Industries, Jamnagar
Jamnagar district is in the state of Gujarat. The city lies to the south of Gulf of Kutch and is 337 km west of the state capital, Gandhinagar. Recently, Jamnagar shot to prominence as Reliance Industries, India’s largest private company, established the world’s largest oil refinery near the village of Moti Khavdi in Jamnagar and the city consequently has been nicknamed as the ‘Oil City of India’.

Reliance Industries has started the Phase-3 of expansion of its petrochemical plant, called J-3. The project will take almost 3 years to complete with a total concrete pour of 24,00,000m3. At present, 20 Putzmeister boom pumps, including sixteen BSF 36.09 and four BSF 32.09, are working on the site. As and when the project accelerates, more machines will be brought in to complete the pour. Putzmeister takes great pride in being associated with India’s leading private sector corporate industry.


NCC, Krishnapatnam in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh

Putzmeister continues to provide the best innovations and quality in its concrete equipments, and the world and our global partners know that Putzmeister is the one who sets standards ‘every single time we pour’. At the same time, on the other side of the globe, Putzmeister was all set to create a new world record in Los Angeles, USA.

Putzmeister Sets New Guinness World Record
After a great successful concrete pour in India, the next day Putzmeister set a world record in Los Angeles, USA. The massive pour took place with 12 Putzmeister truck-mounted concrete boom pumps ranging from 32 to 47 Metres, two Putzmeister placing boom towers, and two Putzmeister trailer-mounted pumps. These concrete pumps were strategically placed both inside and above the excavation. Total 19 pumps were utilized for this enormous 16,200 cubic metre concrete pouring. It took 18.5 hours to complete the pour, which steered Putzmeister towards setting a new Guinness World Record for the largest continuous concrete pour on 15th February 2014 in Los Angeles.

The pour was to lay the foundation of the Wilshire Grand project, which will be the tallest structure west of the Mississippi when finished at 73 stories and 335 m in height. Turner and Conco, the general contractor of the project, devised a plan for the concrete pour, which was located 24-29 m below street level. For the past several months, crews have prepared the site by digging a 6 m deep pit and lining it with 3700 tons of reinforcing steel.

“We utilized Putzmeister equipment due to its durability and reliability,” said Michael Marchesano, Turner’s general superintendent. “With a continuous pour of this magnitude, you need to be able to count on your equipment to keep doing its job, even under demanding conditions.”

The pour included 227 ready mix trucks making more than 2,100 trips and pouring almost 39 million tons of concrete during an 18 ½-hour period.

“Each truck made 10 to 14 concrete drops, traveling through the night between eight different concrete plants within a 30 kilometre radius,” said Marchesano. “The first batch of concrete poured onto the site came from a plant in Vernon that poured the first concrete in Southern California ever.”

“We were extremely happy with how all of the Putzmeister equipment performed,” said Marchesano. “A pour this size requires extensive planning, precision, and dependable equipment. Everything went more smoothly than we could have imagined.”

The concrete pour qualified as the largest continuous concrete pour in history and officially claimed a Guinness World Record.
Given that Los Angeles is the second most populous city in the United States, the construction team anticipated logistical challenges when planning the large mat pour at the project’s downtown location. To minimize the impact on businesses and residents, they began the pour on a Saturday evening and concluded around noon the next day.


High-Traffic, Congested Location: To minimize the impact on businesses and residents, the crew began the pour on a Saturday evening and concluded around noon the next day, working throughout the night. | photo: Gary Leonard.

“Because the concrete must be poured within 90 minutes of being mixed, trucks had to arrive on time,” Marchesano explained. “In case of freeway jams, alternate routes were mapped.” Putzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt. Ltd.

Not only was outside traffic a concern, but job site congestion also was a challenge. Equipment had to be carefully chosen to accommodate the site’s needs.


Los Angeles, Wilshire Grand project – Twelve Putzmeister truck-mounted concrete boom pumps ranging from 32 to 47 meters, two Putzmeister placing boom towers, and two Putzmeister trailer-mounted concrete pumps were strategically placed both inside and above the excavation. | photo: Gary Leonard.

“Through its durability and diverse selection of pumps, Putzmeister helped us overcome the challenge of having a large amount of material that needed to be poured continuously in a dense urban area,” said Marchesano. “Each piece of equipment had its role and was orchestrated to help make the pour run as smoothly and efficiently as possible.”

Building Up

Now that the foundation is in place, the crew will begin working on the attached parking structure and 73-story building that will make up the Wilshire Grand project. Both of the existing Putzmeister MX 34-4 Placing Boom Towers that were used for the concrete pour will remain in place while the crew builds up. Two additional Putzmeister placing booms will be constructed to help place concrete for the underground parking structure.

The two Putzmeister trailer pumps used on the concrete pour will also be used to pump the concrete to the placing towers. The crew will be pumping more than 60,000 m3 of concrete vertically, including lightweight concrete and C55 mixes. With such well-planned and organised preparations, Putzmeister is assertive of providing precise solutions to its clients in India.

For further details contact:

ContentPutzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt. Ltd.,
Email: sales@pmw.co.in; Web: http://www.pmw.co.in

MC-Bauchemie: A Forerunner in Protecting Heritage and Masonry Structures

By Sunny Surlaker, Managing Director, MC-Bauchemie (India) Pvt. Ltd

MC1Mr. Sunny Surlaker joined MC-Bauchemie, Germany in 2009 after his experience in the USA as a materials engineer. Subsequent to extensive training in Europe and Brazil, relating to various aspects of Concrete Technology, R&D, Marketing and Sales management, he has taken over the Concrete additives and cementitious materials division in MC-Bauchemie India as its Head. His pursuits include Concrete Technology, Marketing, driving local R&D and overseeing the sales and technical support structure for MC-Bauchemie. With a Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering from VJTI, Mumbai, a Master’s Degree from University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA and his experience, he brings a fresh international perspective to the 25-year-old Construction Chemicals Manufacturer, MC-Bauchemie India. In an interaction with CE&CR, Mr. Sunny Surlaker talks about MC Bachemie in general and its expertise in Rehabilitation and Repair Techniques. At the end of it, he proves the expertise of his company through some complex cases of Heritage and masonry structures.


On Company and Product Range
MC-Bauchemie (India) Private Limited is a leading name in Construction Chemicals for over Twenty-five years in India. We manufacture over 200 construction chemicals in technical and frinancial Collaboration with MC-Bauchemie, Germany, a 50-year-old international organization. MC-Bauchemie India, an ISO 9001: 2008 certified Company, has a pan India presence through technically trained and qualified channel partners and IRP (Germany) trained applicators. Top-level technical advisors, support our distribution network. Our strength lies in Quality and Reliability. We provide free technical services to solve construction problems, alongwith detailed technical specifications and proposals. On-site, on-time delivery is our motto.

Our success is based on innovation, competence and service. These are the foundations for MC’s Quality and international market reputation. New ideas, products and technologies emphasized and developed by MC have set the standards in many key areas. MC-Bauchemie, invests 10% of manpower and resources in R&D, which is available to us, by virtue of being collaborated.

Our range of products consists of full spectrum of admixtures including PCEs for HPC & SCC, full systems for Waterproofing, Injections, Repairs, Rehabilitation, Protection and Industrial flooring. We also Specialize in low-pore-volume coatings for drinking and wastewater industry, and systems for renovation of heritage monuments, called Oxal. Our product systems are ReACh certified, solvent free and green. Our high-tech products are applied by trained specialized contractors under proper supervision of qualified Civil Engineers. To maintain high technical standards, we are one of the few companies to have a dedicated training Centre and Concrete Technology Lab in Goa for our clients. International Quality, Technical Backup and Reliability make us a successful and leading Construction Chemicals Manufacturer.

On MC-Bauchemie’s Expertise in Rehabilitation and Repair
MC-Bauchemie (India) Private Ltd. manufactures full range of construction chemicals in technical & financial collaboration with MC-Bauchemie Germany. As mentioned earlier, we are an ISO 9001:2008 certified company. Our range includes full spectrum of admixtures including PCE’S for HPC & SCC. Our strength is in providing the clients with full systems like waterproofing, Injections, Repairs & Rehabilitation systems. The clients and consultants can choose from full range of systems, which have compatible products and avoid issues of combining several products from different manufactures, wherein it is impossible for end user to decide cause of failures.

Over the years, our expertise and experience has been brought into practice to rehabilitate and safeguard different structures such as hotels, residential and commercial constructions, educational institutes, hospitals, heritage structures such as Humayun’s Tomb in Delhi, swimming pools, infrastructure like metros, bridges, tunnels, jetties, piers, ports, industrial structures and sealing and stabilization of porous soils in contact with structures. These factors, combined with the appropriate application and construction expertise, make MC-Bauchemie India a forerunner in rehabilitating and protecting our structures in the long run.

On Requirements of a Successful Structural Repair Solution
When a structure shows signs of distress or deterioration, the following steps should be taken in principle. The steps are as under:

• Preliminary investigation, detailed investigation
• Diagnosis
• Laying out specifications for repairs
• Selection of materials
• Surface preparations
• Actual repairs
• Periodical maintenance
• Maintenance of reports etc. for future repairs

In these steps, the choice of procedure, base pretreatment and materials for concrete repair will depend on the existing degree of deterioration, the mechanism of deterioration, its causes and anticipated future stress. The reasons for evident defects or damage must be explored as thoroughly as possible. Following this a thorough QA system needs to be established to ensure the durability of repairs. To provide building owners and architects with a high level of reliability in terms of durable protection and repair work, MC has developed “Quality Assurance Systems” based on:

• Long years of experience, professional competence and technical equipment for assessment of defects, damage and for establishment of repair measures.

• Recommended use of suitable and reliable products for the repair of concrete structures, from a range of successfully tested and established materials.

• Experienced professional firms who are thoroughly familiar with the repair application. For this reason, MC passes on the experience and knowledge of its staff to professional applicators. The company will advise such firms before and during the performance of repair work. Following this process stringently can definitely assist in conducting a successful repair project.

Role of Rehabilitation and Repair Techniques in Creating Green Structures
Advanced repair materials combined with state-of-the-art application technology and expertise can ensure durable repairs. Once the repairs are durable, structures will be more durable; and sustainability goes up due to use of local materials and minimal future repair.

New generation materials are environment friendly, free from solvents and harmful chemicals, and have all the essentials needed for today’s green buildings. These products are also easy to apply, can be hand-applied and require little or no mixing, making it perfectly suitable for applications in difficult, space-limited sites. Using the latest protection technologies, the life of the structures without further repairs can be tremendously increased.


Sustainable construction should aim at reducing the environmental impact of a building over its entire life cycle including construction, occupation, maintenance and demolition. In a fast developing nation like India, costs are essential and sustainable construction can help economize cost of the structure over its life cycle. While some building practices are guided by short-term economic considerations, sustainable construction is based on best practices that emphasize long-term affordability, quality and efficiency. Sustainable construction should aim at environment friendly construction, and this includes reducing repairs, rehabilitation, rebuilding and decommissioning a structure. Most of these issues can be addressed by good quality durable repair. Maintenance of durable structures is absolutely not possible without right usage of construction chemicals. This durability would define and enhance sustainability.

Some Complex Cases of Heritage and Masonry Structures
Structural repairs are basically conducted to restore structural stability of damaged structures. MC-Bauchemie India offers specialized PCC Repair products as well as innovative technology applied through our certified and trained expert applicators. Our systems are also suitable for old masonry and heritage structures in addition to modern concrete structures. Our PCC system is free from epoxies and solvents. The highlight is a one-component PCC product named Zentrifix KMH, which is a corrosion inhibitor as well as a bonding agent. This reduces the number of steps in repairs, thereby, saving time and money. All products are tested for durability.

We are doing repairs and rehabilitation of all types of structures all over India. There are scores of residential buildings where our products are used all over the country. However, our main stress is on sophisticated projects, which has real engineering challenges. We are concentrating on monuments and infrastructure projects.

In recent times our Injection & Repair systems were used in heritage buildings like Contractors Building 1922 House in Mumbai, which includes careful and controlled repairs while maintaining the heritage and structural identity. This project won prestigious award by International Concrete Repairs Institute, USA (ICRI). The work was done by our IRP, German trained applicator Kasturi Coating headed by Mr. K. R. Pai under guidance from Structwel Consultants.

Just to give an indication of the materials, technology and application methods, I would like to highlight a few projects dealing with rehabilitation of Heritage / old masonry structures and a jetty in Mumbai. This will help explain depth of our repair systems and their durability.

Case Study 1: Repair of Old Anzarle Ganpati Temple
The rehabilitation process began with a detailed survey and prepared plans for repair. Along with construction workers, skilled carvers and sculptors were also recruited who were instrumental in maintaining the original profile of the temple. In such type of repairs, the selection of products is very important. The products to be used should be compatible with the original material, durable and workable enough to produce architectural features. Hence, instead of a solvent based system, water bound cement based polymer system was used.

MCB - Figure 1

The work started with removal of vegetation and treatment of the areas to arrest further growth. The existing damaged sections were removed adopting the method of controlled breaking. The exposed core-face was then cleaned, wire brushed and treated. Re-plastering was done by mixing special compounds with the lime mortar manually on ground or by using ready-to-use polymer mortars with high flexural and compressive strength. For instance, the joints in the stones were filled with special non-shrinking polymer-modified cement mortar for increased bonding strength.

MCB - Ganpati Temple Before

Ganpati Temple Before

MCB - Ganpati Temple After

Ganpati Temple After

Where it was not possible to expose the inner core, the method of injection grouting was used with the help of controlled-pressure-pump. Hydraulically setting, polymer modified non-shrink waterproof grout was used. This filled the inner cracks and cavities effectively. This also helped to create an internal waterproofing barrier and prevent water penetration and resulting dampness in future. It develops higher compressive and flexural strengths than normal cement grouts. This work was carried out by Jaisons Engineers, Pune under the guidance of leading Civil Engineer, Mr.Jayant Deogaonkar.

Case Study 2: Repair and Restoration of Humayun’s Tomb
Humayun’s Tomb structure was built in the year 1565. The waterways were damaged leading to deterioration of this important Heritage structure.

MCB - Figure 2

Around 2200 m of channels were selected for restoration, some of which required partial dismantling. The repair procedure that followed involved placing a bed of lime concrete (mix of lime, surkhi, coarse sand and brick aggregates) in a thickness of 20-25 mm. This was coated with a layer of Molasses. The finished surface was then coated over using a slurry-applied crystallization based waterproofing coating of Dichtament DS + Nafufill BB2. The coating was covered with a lime plaster. Vertical faces were covered with brick tiles 40 mm thick. The edges of the channels were done in sandstone and supported with lime mortar edging. The waterproofed surfaces were finished with a final layer of Lime Punning (Neeru Finish).

MCB - Humayuns Tomb 1

This case history has appeared in Indian Architect & Builders Volume 16 (12) August 2003 presented by Ms. Suparna Rajguru.

Case Study 3: Repair and Restoration of Old Secretariat Building – Panaji, Goa
We were approached by Goa State Infrasructure Development Corporation Limited to give them the solution to stop rising dampness at the Historical (300-year old structure) Old Goa Secretariat Building.

MCB - secretariat before2 copy

Secretariat Before

MCB - secretariat after copy

Secretariat After

Project Details:
Owner: Goa Government
Building: 300 Years Old, Old Secretariat Building.
Agency: Goa State Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited
Products Used: Samafit VK1, Samafit VK2, MC-Einpresshilfe EH, MC-Fix ST, Dichtament DS2
Methodology: Inspection for the problems showed wet patches due to rising dampness through the internal capillaries of the walls, and dampness on the columns up to the first floor.

MCB - Secretariat installation of chemical damp proof course

Secretariat Installation of Chemical Damp Proof Course

Following removal of the damp plaster, the walls were treated with a two-component chemical damp-proof course Samafit VK. Samafit VK was introduced in pre-drilled holes. The two components react in the capillaries and form gelation product which makes the capillaries non wettable. Therefore water does not rise in the capillaries against the gravity but depresses and therefore controls the rising dampness. Wherever required in cracks and hollow areas, a cementitious grout enhanced with MC-Einpresshilfe EH a non-shrink additive, was used. Following the application of the chemical damp-proof course, the holes were sealed with a quick set sealer (MC-Fix ST). After allowing the masonry to dry completely, the walls were treated with a slurry-applied crystallization based waterproofing coating of Dichtament DS + Nafufill BB2. This was followed by a waterproof plaster to complete the restoration.

For further details contact:

mc_bauchemieMC-Bauchemie (India) Pvt. Ltd.,
Email: mcbindia@yahoo.co.in; info.india@mc-bauchemie.com;
Web: http://www.mc-bauchemieindia.com

Two-Day Symposium Focused on Latest Geotechnical Softwares



To be at par with the pace of technological changes, every field of engineering is synchronizing itself with the latest advancements taking place in the field of software engineering. Geotechnical engineering has also in the last ten years witnessed flow of large number of numerical modelling software and programs in the market. In view of these developments, Indian Geotechnical Society Delhi Chapter in association with CSMRS organized a symposium-cum-training course on “Application of Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering” on May 1-2 at CSMRS. The main objective of this symposium was to update and expose geotechnical engineers to different professional softwares available in the market for solution of different geotechnical problems ranging from simpler problems of foundation design to complex design of underground structures.

In this symposium, eleven lectures were delivered, spread over a period of two days. Speakers were selected to present a mix of academic experts, field professional and software developers which set the stage for meaningful interaction between the speakers and participants. The Symposium was attended by around hundred delegates representing different governmental, public sector, private professional and academic institutions.

The event commenced at around 09.30 am with the formal registration of the participants, speakers and sponsors. Registration was followed by inaugural function at 10.00 AM which was attended by directors and technical heads of many governmental and non-governmental organizations in addition to registered delegates. Inauguration function was coordinated by Dr. N. P. Honkanadavar, symposium coordinator, who welcomed the chief guest Shri Murari Ratnam; Director CSMRS along with Dr. K.G.Sharma, Professor IIT Delhi, Dr. Atul Nanda; Chairman IGS Delhi Chapter and Dr. Altaf Usmani; Hon. Secretary, IGS Delhi Chapter. He also extended a warm welcome to all the delegates and distinguished speakers who had come from different parts of the country and abroad for this symposium.

Dr. Atul Nanda highlighted the importance of the symposium during his speech while Prof. K.G. Sharma discussed the importance of correct application of numerical methods in the field of geotechnical engineering for optimum solutions. Dr. Altaf Usmani, presented a vote of thanks to one and all with special thanks to CSMRS staff and administration for extending all the help for organization of the workshop.

There were eight technical sessions in the symposium, which included four technical lectures on the first day and seven technical lectures on the second day. Every speaker was approximately given a time of around one hour followed by an interactive discussion for about 10 to 15 minutes. First lecture was given by Dr. K.G. Sharma, a well known expert in the field of numerical modelling of geotechnical structures who discussed the basic aspects of numerical modelling for geotechnical engineers, which set the stage for other lectures to follow that were delivered in line with the usage of specific softwares in the field of geotechnical engineering.

After the completion of all technical sessions, views and feedback of the delegates were invited and discussed in the closing session. Many delegates expressed their thanks to the organizers for organizing this interesting symposium and appreciated the efforts of the speakers for exposing them to a large number of geotechnical softwares, which can be utilized for solution of many complex geotechnical problems. Finally, the symposium came to an end with a special thanks to the speakers and delegates by the Chairman of IGS Delhi Chapter.

Elements of a Successful Structural Repair Plan

Cera Chem - IMG_2890

By Gangadharan Manari, Executive Chairman, Cera-Chem Pvt. Ltd.

Today, the civil engineering industry has recognized the significance of repair and restoration of existing structures. Many structures show signs of premature distress and necessitate their repair and rehabilitation to make them serviceable again.

The major causes of most of the durability problems in concrete structures are the following:

– Design emphasizing on strength criteria alone, totally neglecting the durability issues
– Material deficiencies or selection of improper materials for the desired function
– Poor construction systems and methods
– Natural hazards
– Abuse of the structure, like overloading
– Exposure to aggressive environments
– Lack of maintenance – a stitch in time saves nine
– Old age and obsolescence

Repair Practices
The plan of action for repairs is different in each case and also depends on the selection of material. However, the basic concepts of repairs are:

– to remove the weak zones and replace them with stronger,
– to reintroduce a protective passivating environment around the reinforcement,
– to prevent further action of deteriorating agents from the external environment.

A structural repair solution will be effective and efficient only if it includes proper assessment and analysis of the damage, correct selection of materials, and proper application of the repair materials. The system, the materials used and the application should be chosen such that any repair does not lead to further deterioration of the structure.

Repair Materials Selection
Repair of distressed structures involves situations that are widely different from those encountered in new construction. Almost every repair job has unique conditions and special requirements, thus necessitating a job-specific approach in the selection of repair materials.

Categories of Repair Materials
Various classifications are available for repair materials based on the type of application and composition. As per their common uses, they can be classified as follows:

– Patching materials
– Bonding agents
– Grouts
– Reinforcement / Concrete protective coatings
– Free flow Microconcrete
– Modified concrete
– Resurfacing materials

Cera-Chem manufactures a wide range of construction chemicals including many structural repair products such as bonding agents, polymer modified mortars, epoxy mortars, micro-concrete, patching mortars, etc. Cera-Chem repair products have been successfully used in the repair of many infrastructure projects such as bridges, wharves, jetties, roads, runways, etc.

Case Study: Repairs to Silos Foundations in a Refinery Damaged by Fire

Some years ago, a massive fire broke out in an oil refinery in the Western part of India. The LPG & Propylene storage spheres of the refinery were seriously damaged. The storage spheres themselves were made of Mild Steel and were erected on steel columns. The damages to the foundations of the storage spheres were severe. The impact of the explosion and stresses caused by high temperature due to the fire were such that the bolts anchoring the steel columns with concrete foundations were twisted and distorted. These anchor bolts were to be replaced and the concrete around the bolts were to be reinstated as part of the repair programme. The structure being an old one, the design and specification details of the bolts were not available. This meant that the design specification for the new bolts could only be ascertained after analyzing the original ones, which were embedded in concrete.

Repair Procedure
The total weight of the sphere was approximately 180 MT, and was transferred to the foundation by 10 columns.

Cera Chem1Fig 1.1 Storage Sphere Under Fire

To carry out the repair, the load transferred by each column had to be diverted away from the footing. A temporary support system was designed, fabricated and erected adjacent to each column for which the foundation had to be repaired.

Cera Chem2
Fig.1.2. Buckled Bolts Under Impact Of Explosion

The concrete around the foundation bolts were removed manually. To assist the breaking of concrete, a non-explosive demolition agent was used. The foundation bolts were taken out, analyzed and based on the specification, new bolts were procured and these were placed.

Cera Chem3
Fig.1.3. Repair Method

The existing concrete surface was thoroughly cleaned with compressed air. The damaged reinforcement was replaced and the new reinforcement was fixed in the concrete with polyester resin grout. The steel was protected by applying anti-corrosive zinc rich primer coating. Epoxy based bonding agent was applied on the old concrete surface before fixing the shuttering to receive the new concrete. To enable produce High Early Strength concrete for repair, a special binder was used in place of OPC. Below the base plates, free-flow self-levelling, high strength Micro Concrete was used. Polymer modified mortar was used as a plaster on all exposed concrete surfaces. As the repair concrete achieved the desired compressive strength in three days, the temporary supports were removed and used for the repair of subsequent foundations by proceeding with the alternate columns.

Cera Chem4

Fig.1.4. Repair Method

In an interaction with CE&CR, Mr. Gangadharan Manari talks about Cera-Chem’s expertise in Rehabilitation and Repair while providing an insight into a successful structural repair plan. On Cera-Chem’s Expertise In Rehabilitation and Repair Cera-Chem Pvt Ltd (Cera-Chem) manufactures a wide range of construction chemicals including many structural repair products such as bonding agents, polymer modified mortars, epoxy mortars, microconcrete, patching mortars, etc. Cera-Chem repair products have been successfully used in the repair of many infrastructure projects such as bridges, wharves, jetties, roads, runways, etc. Cera-Chem’s products have also been used in the rehabilitation of many structures damaged by natural forces and also by artificial causes such as fire accidents. Cera-Chem’s expertise lies in analysing the causes of distress in structures, deriving repair techniques and methodologies and executing the repair programme through a network of qualified and experienced applicators.

On Requirements of a Successful Repair Solution
Concrete repair is a demanding application. The success of any repair work will depend on proper selection of materials and good quality control. It is absolutely essential to know the characteristics of the repair material and its nature of interaction with the parent material before executing a repair and restoration work. It is also important that any repair programme is executed through qualified and experienced agencies to derive maximum performance of the repaired structure.

On Role of Rehabilitation and Repair Techniques in Creating Green Structures
Some of the ways for incorporating green building methods in repair are :

• By using special materials having thermal insulation properties for repair, the thermal comfort of the indoors can be enhanced which in turn will help in the reduction of power consumption.
• The passage of air and moisture can be prevented by using superior sealers, improving interior comfort and energy efficiency.
• Repair of buildings helps them to last longer, contributing to sustainability thus reducing the need for reconstruction thereby reducing the effect on the environment.

For further details contact: Cera-Chem Pvt. Ltd.,
Email: manari@cerachemindia.com; Web: http://www.cerachemindia.com

Structural Rehabilitation Of Heritage Buildings

EditorialInternational Council For Research And Innovation In Building And Construction (CIB) has published a “Guide For The Structural Rehabilitation of Heritage Buildings”.

Heritage buildings are defined as existing buildings with significant cultural value to society. Developed societies ascribe cultural value to existing buildings, so they are seen as cultural heritage. In general terms, it can be said that the cultural value of an existing building is as high as it is old.

Existing buildings are subjected to degradation with time, which leads to a situation in which they became not able to fulfil the purpose for which they have been built. Sometimes, there is also the need to improve the conditions offered by the existing buildings or to adapt them to new functions.

Furthermore, in the most developed societies, as they progress, grows the feeling that it is necessary to maintain the existing building heritage. With the changes provoked by rapid technological evolution, as a kind of counterpoint, grows the feeling of keeping the existing built environment and to pass it on to future generations. Rehabilitation of heritage buildings is a way of sustainable development and also an act of culture.

ldings is their structural rehabilitation. However, the assessment of the structural safety of existing buildings is, in general, a complex task, because the methodologies used differ from those adopted in the design of new structures. Furthermore, the eventual strengthening of existing buildings can conflict with their cultural value. Therefore, the type of intervention on the heritage building will depend on the existing situation of the building, and also, on its cultural value, going from simple maintenance, where the objective is not to change the cultural value of the building, to deep rehabilitation, when it is intended to improve the performance of the building.

The need for structural rehabilitation of heritage buildings is, usually, motivated by one or more of the following circumstances:

– The existence of visible defects in the building;
– Damage after a particular event that affects its stability (earthquake, etc.);
– The change of the use of the building for most severe conditions; and
– Requirement of the competent authority, for instance, when there is an increase in the actions (earthquake action, traffic action, etc.) imposed by new codes.

The intervention for structural rehabilitation of heritage buildings comprises, in general, the following steps.

– Acquisition of documented data about the building;
– Detailed survey of the existing condition of the building;
– Elaboration of the diagnosis (including performing tests);
– Assessment of the structural safety;
– Design of the solutions for the intervention;
– Execution of the intervention.

The intervention of structural rehabilitation of heritage buildings has many diverse implications, namely, architectural, structural, economic, historical and social, constituting a combination of technique and culture. The intervention of structural rehabilitation of heritage buildings should, thus, be carried out by multidisciplinary teams, under the guidance of experts having both great technical capacity and cultural sensibility.

By Dr. R Kuberan.

Synergetic Approach to City Planning – a Personal Account

By Gyana Meera, Architect and Toronto Resident

Planning for a City and its urban infrastructure has its unique challenges. It requires balancing the needs of the day with the resources available in the area. It requires the coming together of citizens and professionals towards a common goal of accomplishing a sustainable built environment.

In today’s world full of complexities, it is extremely challenging to plan out an urban centre that is affordable, sustainable and beautiful. It is also important to preserve the city’s heritage and yet build it for a modern society. Toronto is one of the urban environments that consistently ranks amongst the top most liveable cities in the world. One of the several reasons behind this accomplishment is the synergistic approach to city planning and active involvement of the people that use it day in and day out.

City Planning in Toronto
In Ontario, Canada, the Planning Act issued by the ministry of municipal affairs and housing sets out the ground rules for land use planning and describes how land uses may be controlled and who may control them. It dictates provincial as well as municipal level responsibilities.


The municipality prepares local planning documents such as the official plan and zoning bylaws which set the rules and regulations that control development as it occurs. The Planning Act requires the city authorities to hold public meetings when considering applications for amendments to the official plan or zoning bylaws and plans of subdivision, as well as for city-initiated official plan or zoning bylaw amendments.

The purpose of the public meetings is to consider the staff report and provide a public forum for debate on the merits of the application. Applicants have the opportunity to present their proposal, the public can write-in or attend to make their views known. Staff and the local councillor may also decide to host a community consultation meeting. This gives the city planning staff, the councillor and the local community an opportunity to go over a planning proposal with the applicant and ask questions. Community involvement in the decision-making process varies depending on the type or complexity of the application, any directions from City Council and the number of revisions, public meetings and submissions that are required.

Ward 20
The city of Toronto is divided into 44 wards. Among them, Ward 20 covers the area between University Avenue to the east, the waterfront to the south, Bathurst street to the west and Dupont street to the North, which essentially covers a large part of the downtown. The current councillor for this ward is Adam Vaughan. As a recent resident of this ward, I got the chance to experience the city planning initiatives within it. So far, I have been able to attend a couple of meetings that were part of an ongoing series of meetings.

Built Form Study Meeting
The built form study meeting was held on November 25, 2013. This was the second meeting of a series of meetings held regarding the King-Spadina East Precinct Built Form Study. A notice was sent by mail to all residents in the area a few weeks earlier. It explained that since this area had seen a huge growth in the recent years and there were many applications that had been submitted for more buildings in this area, the City wanted to hear from the community on how community services and the public realm should be addressed.

Around 50 citizens attended the meeting. After an opening statement by Councillor Vaughn, the city staff made a short presentation explaining what came out of the first meeting. We were divided into small groups and were led by a facilitator at each table. A giant map and sharpies were provided in order for us to visually describe our insights on improving the area.


I conveyed my concerns regarding lack of open spaces to sit and enjoy a quick sandwich during the lunch hour on a warm day in certain locations. There were also discussions regarding over-building of residential condominiums on particular streets that threatened to eliminate the public spaces in those areas. At the end of the meeting, the city staff collected all the marked-up drawings and will be following up with their report in 2014.

Heritage Conservation District Study Meeting
On March 18, 2014, the City and a consultant team presented the draft Heritage Conservation District Study and its conclusions & recommendations. They were looking for feedback on the content of the study and its recommendations.

Under Part V of the Ontario Heritage Act, municipalities have the power to designate districts that have significant social, cultural, historical or natural value. These are called Heritage Conservation Districts (HCDs). Once an area is designated under Part V, any exterior alterations or proposals to demolish property within the area must first receive permission from the municipal council.

Similar to the previous meeting, after a short presentation by the consultants, every group of participants was asked to write their recommendations on the large maps provided.
My main concern was that the report did not include the part of Spadina Avenue just north of Queen Street. I expressed that it was important to maintain low rise development in that area to preserve the existing context. Councillor Vaughan agreed with me and conveyed that the area of concern was being discussed as a part of yet another HCD report.


As an architect and a resident of Toronto, I feel heard in these meetings and find them to be a means of expressing my opinions, both as a professional as well as a resident. To build a great city, it is important to listen to the needs of the people that live in it and to attend to their needs. This synergistic approach to planning is an essential part of any urban development.

References & Image Credits
1. http://urbantoronto.ca/news/2013/11/king-spadina-residents-meet-consider-future-area-needs#disqus_thread
2. http://urbantoronto.ca/news/2014/03/king-spadina-heritage-conservation-district-plans-progress
3. http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=064d0f1025c21410VgnVCM10000071d 60f89RCRD& vgnextchannel=9632acb640c21410VgnVCM 10000071d60f 89RCRD# planning
4. http://ward20.ca/

Improving And Maintaining Basic Urban Infrastructure

Cover1The Urban Infrastructure Committee reconstituted by FICCI was mandated to articulate a realistic agenda for India’s urban sector and suggest last mile solutions to enhance private sector participation. In a recent report the Committee identified the following challenges.

About 286 million persons were living in urban areas of India in 2001, and over the next 25 years it is expected to grow 38% and become 534 million in 2026. In 2001, 640 cities/towns have reported slum populations of 42.6 million. This constitutes 15 percent of the total urban population of the country.

The present levels of urban infrastructure are grossly inadequate to meet the demand of the existing urban population. India’s population will grow to 1.7 billion by 2050 and that rapid urbanization will add nearly 900 million people to Indian cities. City capacity will need to grow nearly 400% in less than 50 years.

The inexorable demographic surge in urban India is fuelled by the growing disparity between rural and urban per capita income. From near parity in 1950, in the 1990’s the ratio of urban per capita income to rural per capita income was nearly 4:1. As per the 66th round of National Sample Survey (NSS) for the period July 2009 – June 2010, the divide has accentuated to about 9:1.

By 2025, nearly half a billion Indians will need new, urban homes. This is equal to the needs of China, North America and Western Europe put together.

There is a tremendous pressure on civic infrastructure systems like water supply, sewerage and drainage, solid waste management, etc. Water supply is available for 2.9 hours per day across cities and towns. The non-revenue water that includes physical and revenue losses, accounts for 40-60 percent of total water supply. About 30 to 50 percent households do not have sewerage connections and less than 20 percent of total waste water is treated. Solid waste systems are severely stressed. The state of services reflects the deterioration in the quality of city environments. 70% of urban households are being served by tap and 21% by tube well or hand pump. 66% of urban households have their principal source of water within their premises while 32% have it within 0.2 km. 41% have sole access to their principal source of drinking water and 59% share a public source. 26% of households have no latrines, 35% use septic tank and 22% use sewerage system. Sewerage connections varied from 48% to 70%. About 1,15,000 MT of municipal solid waste is generated daily in the country. Per capita waste generation in cities varies between 0.2 – 0.6 kg per day and it is increasing by 13% per annum.

In addition to the gap in available infrastructure to meet the requirements of urban centres in India, there is a daunting shortfall in available funds for improving and maintaining basic urban infrastructure.

The traditional paradigm for financing urban infrastructure consisted of internal accruals of local bodies and loans and grants from the State Government. This was augmented by direct credit from institutions such as HUDCO and LIC linked to State Government guarantees. A small component of bilateral and multilateral assistance was also available.

The Eleventh Five Year Plan had estimated the total fund requirement for implementation of the target for urban water supply, sewerage and sanitation, drainage, and solid waste management to be Rs. 1,29,237 crore and that for urban transport to be Rs. 1,32,590 crore. According to estimates based on the City Development Plans (CDPs) prepared by the States under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM), the requirements for both urban infrastructure services and urban transport were estimated to be as high as Rs. 8,00,000 crore.

Opening up of FDI in relation to township, housing, built-up infrastructure and construction of development projects by allowing FDI up to 100% under automatic route was the first step towards promoting the participation of the foreign investors in the construction industry.

– Dr. R Kuberan